“He who leaves his home in the cause of Allah finds in the earth many a refuge, wide and spacious.” [4:100]
As you can see the concept of hijrah has been universalized: It became the metaphor for the continuous movement from the state of being to the state of becoming. The twentieth century intellectual, Ali Shariati, universalized hijrah into the idea of man as “a choice, a struggle, a constant becoming. He is an infinite migration within himself, from clay to God; he is a migrant within his soul.”
The Prophet’s hijrah took place in 622 C.E. This date came from historical recordings and was confirmed recently from inscriptions and archeological evidence. Quran does not present time as dates but as events and happenings. Although Quran alluded to the Prophet and his companion, Abu Bakr, in the cave during their hijrah, the verse was not revealed immediately after hijrah but years later when the Muslim community was facing tremendous hardship and harsh conditions and needed a reminder. The prophet and his companions were preparing for a campaign to protect Medina from an impending attack. It was called the “campaign of hardship” because of the limitation of provisions in the face of harsh weather conditions. This “campaign of hardship” became a campaign by the believers to overcome hardship and support the Prophet at this critical moment of his mission. Indeed, until they thought well of themselves, how could the believers go forth to encounter the rest of the world? At this critical moment, Quran would remind the community that Allah would help them the same way He helped their Prophet at the time of hijrah.
“If you help him not, Allah did indeed help him and give him victory, when the unbelievers drove him out: he had no more than one companion: The two were in the cave, and he said to his companion: Have no fear for Allah is with us.” [9:40]
It is evident how Quran utilizes the historical event and transforms it into a sign (Ayah) and a lesson (Ibra) in order for the believers to see a new option and new hope for change when everything else seems to fail.
Quran is presenting us with a new meaning of victory or success. Victory takes place when the values that emanate from the Beautiful Names of Allah prevail “The word of Allah is exalted.”- when the value of justice prevails over injustice; when the value of tawheed, as a vision to unite people, prevails over dividing them along tribal, regional, ethnic, religious, or sectarian lines. Quran goes beyond that and reminds us how the believers should behave at the time of victory and not to let the victory blind them from adhering to higher values.
“Those who, if We establish them on earth, establish prayer and give charity, enjoin the right and forbid wrong.” [22:41]
Quran changed the way history is recorded. According to Quran, history is not about chronology but goes beyond that to answer the question why such an historical event happened. Indeed, we are dealing here with philosophy of history rather than history. A contemporary Historian made an interesting comment about Quran: There is an implicit philosophy of history in Quran. It requires special and advanced tools and skills to uncover it. Why then the hijrah?
The experience of the Prophet and those who embraced Islam in Mecca became very hard and reached a dead end. Torture, physical assault, killing, conspiracy to kill, and siege were inflicted on the believers. Quran summarized their actions in the following verse: “Remember how the unbelievers plotted against you, to capture you in bonds, or slay you, or get you out. They plot and plan, and Allah too plans, but the best of planners is Allah.” [8:30]
The chances for the new message to be accepted became almost negligible. The situation became similar to the experience of Prophet Noah with his people.
“He said: O my Lord! I have called to my people night and day: But my call only increased their flight. And every time I have called to them, that you might forgive them, they have thrust their fingers into their ears, covered themselves up with their garments, grown obstinate and given themselves up to arrogance.” [71:5-7]
Noah made hijrah with his followers into the ark (a primitive form of hijrah).
“So he said: Embark on the ark in the name of Allah, both in its path and at its destination.” [11:41]
Similarly, hijrah for Mohammad and his companions became the way out of this hopeless situation and the conscious choice to break the siege before the believers. Hijrah is not any more an option but a necessity, not a “should” but a “must.”
“As to those who believed but did not migrate (make the hijrah); you owe no duty of protection to them until they migrate.” [8:72]
The formation of the primordial society was instrumental for the believers to come together and cooperate in order to respond to the internal and external challenges and protect themselves against all dangers. Failure to do that and corruption, upheaval, mischief, and ills fare the land.
“Unless you do this, there would be upheaval and oppression on earth, and great mischief.” [8:73]
In conclusion, hijrah is the vision that enables the believers through history to position themselves in time and space and decide where they are going. Hijrah is the metaphor for liberation, renewal, and rebirth. Hijrah is the hope and the aspiration for a better future.
By Dr. Walid Khayr